Sanskrit Words

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One can learn about how words are created, how they are categorised and much more.
Words are made up of syllables, which are a combination of vowels and consonants. A syllable may have one or more consonants, however, it will always have only one vowel.
In Sanskrit, there are three grammatical genders (Masculine, Feminine and Neuter), three grammatical numbers (Singular, Dual and Plural) and eight cases (Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative and Vocative).

  • Grammatical Genders

    In Sanskrit, these are known as लिङ्गानि (Liṅgāni). Namely, पुल्लिङ्गम् (Pulliṅgam) (Masculine Gender). स्त्रीलिङ्गम् (Strīliṅgam) (Feminine Gender), and नपुंसकलिङ्गम् (Napuṃsakaliṅgam) (Neuter Gender). This feature is special only for words. The case of a word is also defined by it.

  • Grammatical Numbers

    In Sanskrit, these are known as वचनानि (Vacanāni). Namely, एकवचनम् (Ekavacanam) (Singular), द्विवचनम् (Dvivacanam) (Dual), and बहुवचनम् (Bahuvacanam) (Plural).  

  • Word Cases

    In Sanskrit, these are known as शब्दरूपाणि (Śabdarūpāṇi). They are influenced by the प्रकृतिः (Prakṛtiḥ), लिङ्गम् (Liṅgam) and of the प्रातिपदिकम् (Prātipadikam).

  • Vibhaktiḥ/Kārakam

    In Sanskrit, this is written as विभक्तिः/कारकम्. A Kārakam is the meaning of the case of the word. Each Kārakam has a specific meaning which is used according to the meaning of the sentence. A Vibhaktiḥ is the name of the group in which that Kārakam belongs.

  • Upapada-Vibhaktiḥ

    In Sanskrit, it is written as उपपद-विभक्तिः. A word/verb which requires a specific Kārakam of the word used in accordance with it that cannot change under any circumstances is called an उपपद-विभक्तिः (Upapada-Vibhaktiḥ).

  • Nouns

    In Sanskrit, nouns are known as सञ्ज्ञाः. Nouns are words which name a particular person, object, place, etc.

  • Pronouns

    In Sanskrit, pronouns are known as सर्वनामानि (Sarvanāmāni). They are used in the place of nouns to avoid unnecessary repetition. In Sanskrit, the use of pronouns can be influenced due to distance between the orator and the object being referred to.

  • Adjectives

    In Sanskrit, adjectives are known as विशेषणाः (Viśeṣaṇāḥ). Thy are used to describe a word. Adjectives have the same case as the word they are describing.

  • Indeclinables

    In Sanskrit, these are known as अव्ययाः (Avyayāḥ). No matter how the sentence is, these words' forms will never change and they always remain the same.

Grammatical Genders

In sanskrit, there are 3 grammatical genders. They are known as लिङ्गानि (liṅgāni). They are – पुल्लिङ्गम् (pulliṅgam) – (masculine gender), स्त्रीलिङ्गम् (strīliṅgam) – (feminine gender ) & नपुंसकलिङ्गम् (napuṃsakaliṅgam) – (neuter gender).

This is only applicable for words.

Note: Whenever any pronoun or adjective is used, both pronoun and adjective should be of the same grammatical gender as the object being referred to, otherwise it will be grammatically incorrect.

Grammatical Numbers

In Sanskrit, there are 3 grammatical numbers. They are known as वचनानि (vacanāni).

The वचनानि (vacanāni) are:
एकवचनम् (ekavacanam) (singular),
द्विवचनम् (dvivacanam) (dual) and
बहुवचनम् (bahuvacanam) (plural).

In both words and verbs, this is applicable e.g.

बालकः पठति। (bālakaḥ paṭhati।)
This means – One boy is reading.

बालकौ पठतः। (bālakau paṭhataḥ।)
This means – Two boys are reading.

बालकाः पठन्ति। (bālakāḥ paṭhanti।)
This means – Many boys are reading.

Note: In Sanskrit, subject-verb agreement is very crucial. It means whatever वचनम् (vacanam) the subject is, the verb must be of that वचनम् (vacanam) and vice versa. If this is not done, the sentence will be grammatically incorrect.

Word Cases

शब्दरूपाणि (Śabdarūpāṇi) are word cases in Sanskrit. They are influenced by the प्रकृतिः (Prakṛtiḥ), लिङ्गम् (Liṅgam) and of the प्रातिपदिकम् (Prātipadikam).

Each word case has a specific meaning which is known as its कारकम् (Kārakam) and the group in which it belongs is known as the विभक्तिः (Vibhaktiḥ).

Word cases for words of a particular kind will always be the same e.g. If the word cases of the Pratipādikaḥ, ‘देव (Deva)’ which is an अकारान्तः (Akārāntaḥ) (ending in अ (a)) पुल्लिङ्गम् (Pulliṅgam) (masculine gender) word are used, they will be the same for all Akārāntaḥ Pulliṅgam words.

A few words are given below whose word cases can be replicated for other words of their kind:

अकारन्ताः/आकारान्ताः शब्दरूपाणि
‘देव’ अकारान्तः पुल्लिङ्गम् शब्दः

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

विभक्तिः

देवः

देवौ

देवाः

प्रथमा

देवम्

देवौ

देवान्

द्वितिया

देवेन

देवाभ्याम्

देवैः

तृतीया

देवाय

देवाभ्याम्

देवेभ्यः

चतुर्थी

देवात्

देवाभ्याम्

देवेभ्यः

पञ्चमी

देवस्य

देवयोः

देवानाम्

षष्ठी

देवे

देवयोः

देवेषु

सप्तमी

हे देव!

हे देवौ!

हे देवाः!

सम्बोधनम्

‘माला’ आकारान्तः स्त्रीलिङ्गम् शब्दः

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

विभक्तिः

माला

माले

मालाः

प्रथमा

मालाम्

माले

मालाः

द्वितिया

मालया

मालाभ्याम्

मालाभिः

तृतीया

मालायै

मालाभ्याम्

मालाभ्यः

चतुर्थी

मालायाः

मालाभ्याम्

मालाभ्यः

पञ्चमी

मालायाः

मालयोः

मालानाम्

षष्ठी

मालायाम्

मालयोः

मालासु

सप्तमी

हे माले!

हे माले!

हे मालाः!

सम्बोधनम्

‘वन’ अकारान्तः नपुंसकङ्गम् शब्दः

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

विभक्तिः

वनम्

वने

वनानि

प्रथमा

वनम्

वने

वनानि

द्वितिया

वनेन

वनाभ्याम्

वनैः

तृतीया

वनाय

वनाभ्याम्

वनेभ्यः

चतुर्थी

वनात्

वनाभ्याम्

वनेभ्यः

पञ्चमी

वनस्य

वनयोः

वनानाम्

षष्ठी

वने

वनयोः

वनेषु

सप्तमी

हे वन!

हे वने!

हे वनानि!

सम्बोधनम्

इकारान्तः/ईकारान्तः शब्दाः
‘मुनि’ इकारान्तः पुल्लिङ्गम् शब्दः

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

विभक्तिः

मुनिः

मुनी

मुनयः

प्रथमा

मुनिम्

मुनी

मुनीन्

द्वितिया

मुनिना

मुनिभ्याम्

मुनिभिः

तृतीया

मुनये

मुनिभ्याम्

मुनिभ्यः

चतुर्थी

मुनेः

मुनिभ्याम्

मुनिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

मुनेः

मुन्योः

मुनीनाम्

षष्ठी

मुनौ

मुन्योः

मुनिषु

सप्तमी

हे मुने!

हे मुनी!

हे मुनयः!

सम्बोधनम्

‘मति’ इकारान्तः स्त्रीलिङ्गम् शब्दः

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

विभक्तिः

मतिः

मती

मतयः

प्रथमा

मतिम्

मती

मतीः

द्वितिया

मत्या

मतिभ्याम्

मतिभिः

तृतीया

मत्यै/मतये

मतिभ्याम्

मतिभ्यः

चतुर्थी

मत्याः/मतेः

मतिभ्याम्

मतिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

मत्याः/मतेः

मत्योः

मतीनाम्

षष्ठी

मत्याम्/मतौ

मत्योः

मतिषु

सप्तमी

हे मते!

हे मती!

हे मतयः!

सम्बोधनम्

‘वारि’ इकारान्तः स्त्रीलिङ्गम् शब्दः

एकवचनम्

द्विवचनम्

बहुवचनम्

विभक्तिः

वारि

वारिणी

वारीणि

प्रथमा

वारि

वारिणी

वारीणि

द्वितिया

वारिणा

वारिभ्याम्

वारिभिः

तृतीया

वारिणे

वारिभ्याम्

वरिभ्यः

चतुर्थी

वारिणः

वारिभ्याम्

वरिभ्यः

पञ्चमी

वारिणः

वारिणोः

वारीणाम्

षष्ठी

वारिणि

वारिणोः

वारिषु

सप्तमी

हे वारे/वारि!

हे वारिणी!

हे वारीणि!

सम्बोधनम्

Pronouns

In Sanskrit, pronouns are known as सर्वनामानि (sarvanāmāni). Pronouns come in the place of nouns to avoid unnecessary repetition.

In Sanskrit, pronouns must have the same grammatical gender, grammatical number and case as the noun they are replacing. The use of pronouns can be influenced by distance.

Some pronouns along with their meanings are:

तद् (tad) – This is used to indicate objects that are far from the speaker.

एतद् (etad) – This is used to indicate objects which are close to the speaker.

इदम् (idam) – Like एतद् (etad), this too, is used to indicate objects which are close to the speaker.

यद् (yad) – This is used in a sentence to indicate the doer of an action. E.g.: The one who has read.

अस्मद् (asmad) – This is a pronoun of the first person and is used by one to refer to oneself.

युष्मद् (yuṣmad) – This is a pronoun which is used to refer to by one to refer to the person who is listening, i.e. the person one is speaking to.

किम् (kim) – This is a pronoun which is used to ask questions.

Adjectives

In Sanskrit, an adjective is known as a विशेषणम् (viśeṣaṇam). Adjectives in Sanskrit must have the same grammatical gender, grammatical number and case as the object they are describing. In Sanskrit, the object being described to is known as the विशेष्यम् (viśeṣyam).

E.g.

सुन्दरः प्रासादः। (sundaraḥ prāsādaḥ।)
This means, ‘A beautiful palace’.

सुन्दरी माला। (sundarī mālā।)
This means, ‘A beautiful garland’.

सुन्दरं कमलम्। (sundaraṃ kamalam।)
This means, ‘A beautiful lotus (flower)’.

Nouns

In Sanskrit, nouns are known as सञ्ज्ञाः (sañjñāḥ). A noun is any word which names a person, object, place, etc.

In Sanskrit, the cases of nouns are decided according to their ending. If the word cases of any one word of a kind are given (same grammatical gender and the same ending of the word) those word cases will be the same for all other words of its kind.

Indeclinables

In Sanskrit, indeclinables are known as अव्ययाः (avyayāḥ). They are such words which never change, no matter what the circumstances. They have no cases.

Some indeclinables along with their meanings are:
अत्र (atra) – Here
तत्र (tatra) – There
सर्वत्र (sarvatra) – Everywhere
अन्यत्र (anyatra) –  Somewhere else
कुत्र (kutra) – Where?
अधुना (adhunā) – Now
तदा (tadā) – At that time
सर्वदा (sarvadā) – Always
कदा (kadā) – When?
अपि (api) – Also
शीघ्रम् (śīghram) – Fast/Quickly
शनैः (śanaiḥ) – Slowly
पुनः (punaḥ) – again
आम् (ām) – Yes
न (na) – No
अद्य (adya) – Today
श्वः (śvaḥ) – Tomorrow
ह्यः (hyaḥ) – Yesterday.