उपपदविभक्तयः (upapadavibhaktayaḥ)

Chapter

7

Skill Level

Intermediate

Language

Sanskrit explained in English

Overview

Hope you have understood and learnt 1. Grammatical Numbers, Persons & Genders. 2. Cases & Tenses,  3. Word Forms, 4. Word classes, 5. Sanskrit Suffixes and Sanskrit Prefixes in chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6 respectively.

‘upapadavibhaktayaḥ’ is the seventh chapter in this series. From the name of the chapter, it is quite obvious that we will learn about upapadavibhaktayaḥ are words which require a particular case when they are used.

Learning this chapter will help you:

Who is the chapter for?

उपपदविभक्तयः (upapadavibhaktayaḥ)

These are words which require a particular case when they are used.

Following are some examples according to the case:

द्वितीया विभक्तिः (dvitīyā vibhaktiḥ) (Second Case): Some indeclinables require this case such as – परितः (paritaḥ). This word means, “On all four sides”. Here, the thing that is surrounded on all four sides requires this case.

आम्रवृक्षं परितः वानराः सन्ति। (āmravṛkṣaṃ paritaḥ vānarāḥ santi।) this means, “The monkeys are on all four sides of the mango tree”. Here, the word, “आम्रवृक्षम्” is in the second case as it signifies the thing on all four sides of which the monkeys are.

Some other indeclinables also require this case such as सर्वतः (sarvataḥ), उभयतः (ubhayataḥ), अभितः (abhitaḥ), धिक् (dhik), प्रति (prati), अधोऽधः (adho’dhaḥ), उपर्युपरि (uparyupari), विना (vinā), समया (samayā), निकषा (nikaṣā), विना (vinā), etc.

Some roots also require this case for their verb forms such as – गम् (√gam) this means, “To go”. The place where we go requires this case e.g. अहं विद्यालयं गच्छामि। (ahaṃ vidyālayaṃ gacchāmi।) this means, “I go to school”. Here, the word, “विद्यालयम्” is in the second case as it signifies the place where I go.

तृतीया विभक्तिः (tṛtīyā vibhaktiḥ) (Third Case): Some indeclinables require this case, such as – सह (saha) this word means, “with”. Here, the thing or person with which the action is happening needs to be in this case.

अहं मित्रैः सह विद्यालयं गच्छामि। (ahaṃ mitraiḥ saha vidyālayaṃ gacchāmi।) this means, “I go to school with my friends”. Here, the word, “मित्रैः” is in the third case as it signifies the people whom I go to school with.

Some other indeclinables also require this case such as साकम् (sākam), सार्धम् (sārdham), समम् (samam), अलम् (alam), विना (vinā), etc.

This case is also used to show a physical disability of some kind. The part of the body which is disabled is in the third case, such as – भिक्षुकः एकेन नेत्रेण अन्धः। (bhikṣukaḥ ekena netreṇa andhaḥ।) this means, “The beggar is blind by one eye”. Here, the word, “नेत्रेण” is in the third case as it signifies the part of the body with the disability.

चतुर्थी विभक्तिः (caturthī vibhaktiḥ) (Fourth Case): Some roots require this case for their verb forms, such as – दा (√dā) This means, “to give”. Here, the person who receives the object requires this case.

अहं मित्राय उपहारं अयच्छम्। (ahaṃ mitrāya upahāraṃ ayaccham।) this means, “I gave a gift to my friend”. Here, the word, “मित्राय” is in the fourth case as it signifies the person to whom I gave a gift.

Some other roots also require this case for their verb forms such as √रुच् (√ruc),√कुप् (√kup), √क्रुध् (√krudh), etc.

Some indeclinables also require this case, such as – नमः (namaḥ) this is a word that is used to show that we are offering our respects to a deity. The deity to whom we are doing so requires this case.

ॐ गणेशाय नमः। (oṃ gaṇeśāya namaḥ।) This is a mantra of Lord Ganesha. Here, the Lord’s name is in the fourth case as He is the person to whom we are offering our respects.

Some other indeclinables which require this case are स्वाहा (svāhā), स्वधा (svadhā), स्वस्ति (svasti), etc.

पञ्चमी विभक्तिः (pañcamī vibhaktiḥ) (Fifth case): Some roots require this case for their verb forms, such as – भी (√bhī) This means, “to be afraid”. Here, the thing that one is afraid of requires to be in this case.

बालकः सर्पात् बिभेति। (bālakaḥ sarpāt bibheti।) This means, “The boy is afraid of the snake”. Here, the word, “सर्पात्” is in the fifth case as it is the thing that the boy is afraid of.

Some indeclinables also require this case, such as – बहिः (bahiḥ) this word means, “outside”. Here, the place outside of which the action happens requires this case.

छात्रः कक्षायाः बहिः अगच्छत्। (chātraḥ kakṣāyāḥ bahiḥ agacchat।) This sentence means, “The student went out of the classroom”. Here, the word, “कक्षायाः” is in the fifth case as it signifies the place out of which the student went.

षष्ठी विभक्तिः (ṣaṣṭhī vibhaktiḥ) (Sixth Case): Some indeclinables require this case, such as – समीपम् (samīpam): this word means, “near”. Here, this case is used to indicate the place near which something is.

ग्रामस्य समीपं क्षेत्राणि सन्ति। (grāmasya samīpaṃ kṣetrāṇi santi।) this means, “The fields are near the village”. Here the word, “ग्रामस्य” is in the sixth case as it is the word that signifies the place near which the fields are located.

Some other indeclinables also require this case such as उपरि (upari), अधः (adhaḥ), etc.

सप्तमी विभक्तिः (saptamī vibhaktiḥ) (Seventh Case): Some roots require this case for their verb forms, such as – स्निह् (√snih) this means, “to love”. Here, the person who is loved requires this case.

मातापितरौ पुत्रे स्निह्यतः। (mātāpitarau putre snihyataḥ।) this means, “The parents love their son.” Here, the word, “पुत्रे” is in the seventh case as it signifies the person who is being loved.

The use of some adjectives also requires this case, such as – निपुण (nipuṇa). This is an adjective which is used to show that somebody is proficient in a particular activity or thing. Here, the activity in which somebody is proficient needs to be in this case.

अश्विनी सङ्गीते निपुणा अस्ति। (aśvinī saṅgīte nipuṇā asti।) This means, “Ashwini is proficient in music”. Here, the word, “सङ्गीते” is in the seventh case as it signifies the activity in which Ashwini is proficient.

Some other indeclinables also require this case such as कुशल (kuśala), पण्डित (paṇḍita), निपुण (nipuṇa), प्रवीण (pravīṇa), etc.

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