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Sanskrit is written in the देवनागरी (Devanāgarī) script.  In Sanskrit, Letters are known as वर्णाः (varṇāḥ). These are the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. They are 46 in number. In Sanskrit, there are no capital or small letters.

There are two main types of letters in Sanskrit- the स्वराः  (Svarāḥ) which are the 13 vowels and the व्यञ्जनानि (Vyañjanāni) which are the 33 consonants.

A syllable in Sanskrit is the mixture of one vowel and one or more consonants. Also, there are some varṇās which come after a vowel and cannot be pronounced by themselves. These are known as the अयोगवाहाः (ayogavāhāḥ).

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Chapter - 1

Maheshwari Sutrani

The Māheśvarī-Sūtrāṇi are fourteen sounds which contain all the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. Maheshwari Sutras (Māheśvarī-Sūtrāṇi), also known as the Shiva Sutras are considered to be the foundation of Sanskrit.

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Chapter - 2

Sanskrit Alphabet

The वर्णमाला (Varṇamālā) contains all the letters of Sanskrit alphabet in a systematic way. It is quite similar to the Māheśvarī-Sūtrāṇi. Varṇamālā is divided into two parts - स्वराः (Svarāḥ) / Vowels and व्यञ्जनानि (Vyañjanāni) / Consonants.

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Chapter - 3


स्वराः (Svarāḥ), are vowels of the Sanskrit alphabet. They are also known as अच् (Ac), as in the Māheśvarī-Sūtrāṇi, the vowels are given from अ (A) to च् (C).  They are considered as Svaras according to how long they retain their sound when spoken.

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Chapter - 4


व्यञ्जनानि (Vyañjanāni) i.e. Consonants of Sanskrit are 33 in number. Consonants, when not mixed with any vowel, are hard to pronounce. Hence, they are mixed with a vowel to create a syllable.

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Chapter - 5


अयोगवाहाः (ayogavāhāḥ) are Varnas in Sanskrit which always come after vowels. They cannot be pronounced by themselves. There are two such letters- विसर्गः (Visargaḥ) (ः) and अनुस्वारः (Anusvāraḥ) (ं).

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Chapter - 6

Varna Viccheda & Samyoga

Varṇavicchedaḥ is the separation of letters of a certain word and varṇasaṃyogaḥ is the combination of different letters to form a word.

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Other Interesting Sections


Sanskrit composition


Sanskrit Vocabulary